Three repositories of the dictionary project:

Learning Dictionary      Participatory Wiki dictionary      Culture Dictionary


        The ˇ§Yami (Tao) Online Dictionaryˇ¨ is an essential website for Chinese speakers learning the Yami (Tao) language. This project was funded by the Council of Indigenous Peoples, Executive Yuan (July 1, 2007-June 30, 2009) to Providence University, Taiwan. The PI and co-PI are Professor D. Victoria Rau at Wheaton College, USA, and Ms. Maa-Neu Dong at the National Museum of Natural Science in Taiwan. The research team consists of the community language consultants, Yong-Quan Xie and Xi-Yue Tseng on Orchid Island, and IT consultant, Professor Meng-Chien Yang, and four research assistants, Ann Hui-Huan Chang, Huei-Shuan Guo, Yin-Sheng Tai, and Chia-Ying Tseng at Providence University. The Yami (Tao) Learning Dictionary was completed at the end of the first year, while the Yami (Tao) Encyclopedia will be completed the second year. All vocabulary and example sentences used for the dictionary entries were recorded by our Yami (Tao) Language consultants, whereas special cultural objects and events of Orchid Island are accompanied by photographs.

This website includes two different online formats of the Yami (Tao) Learning Dictionary:
1. Lexique Pro software version: Created jointly by Maa-Neu Dong and Victoria Rau, with the assistance of Ann Hui-Huan Chang. It contains 1786 lexical entries, with 780 roots and 1006 derivatives. There are a total of 2204 entries that have example sentences. The content is taken from the following seven sources that were first put together into a Yami (Tao) database. After additions and revisions, the database was made into the new ˇ§Yami (Tao) Learning Dictionary File.ˇ¨ An index organized by Chinese pinyin spelling was included to make it easier for a Chinese user to look for words. In addition, sound files are also included of pronunciation of words in Jiratay, Iraralay, and Ivalino. The paper copy (CD included) was published in August of 2008 by Providence University. If you want to purchase a copy, please contact Ms. Guo from the Department of Computer Science & Information Management (886-4-26328001 ext. 18017).

    Seven sources:
    A- The 2007 Yami language proficiency test for Indigenous students to receive high school and/or college entrance benefits,
    B- The monograph of Yami Texts with Reference Grammar and Dictionary, co-authored by D. Victoria Rau and Maa-Neu Dong (2006),
    C- The 2007 Indigenous language teachers training workshop on Yami literacy,
    D- Yami orthography with example sentences (2006),
    E- The second year report (1999) on Yami Language Corpus Project with five hundred example sentences, funded by the Counsel of Indigenous peoples, Executive Yuan,
    F- Collection of two hundred commonly used Yami words by the Providence University research group,
    G- Three texts from the Yami Digital Archive Corpus ( (2005-2007).

2. The Participatory Wiki dictionary for Indigenous Peoples in Taiwan ( This project was directed by Professor Meng-Chien Yang, assisted by Pei-Tsai Chang and Shin-Da Chou to create the database, and Huei-Shuan Guo to create the webpage. In addition to having a complete Yami (Tao) dictionary, it also contains a platform for dictionary entries for over forty other indigenous languages. It is a channel for Taiwanese indigenous language activists to promote their own languages as well as providing online resources in which other indigenous peoples can help add dictionary entries. Please register online and use this resource that has a similar structure to that of Wikipedia.

3. The Yami (Tao) Culture Dictionary was another product of collaboration by Yami language specialists, Austronesian linguists, and computer scientists. It was jointly edited by Maa-Neu Dong, Victoria Rau, and Hui-Huan Chang. It contains 6022 lexical entries, with 3902 roots, 2120 derivatives, and a total of 6450 entries that have example sentences. This dictionary was compiled by consulting a large Yami corpus built specifically for this purpose, stored in Toolbox, and output with the help of Lexique Pro. The sound files of the dictionary represent pronunciations of three major villages, recorded by proficient speakers of the language. All special cultural items are illustrated with photos.